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Acasa arrow Echipamente medicale arrow Radiologie arrow Phantoms arrow NEMA Cardiology Phantom
 




NEMA Cardiology Phantom




The NEMA Cardiology Phantom was designed by collaboration with SCA&I to provide a cardiovascular fluoroscopy benchmark phantom. It is used to test systems under conditions simulating normal clinical use for fluoroscopically guided invasive and interventional procedures.

The phantom test ensemble includes tests for imaging-field geometry, spatial resolution, and low-contrast iodine detectability, working thickness range, motion unsharpness and phantom entrance dose.

  • Phantom and test procedures simulate a range of fluoroscopically guided invasive and interventional procedures
  • Provides simultaneous objective measurements of image quality and phantom entrance dose
  • Test results characterize the performance of the complete system under simulated clinical conditions
  • All tests are performed using the imaging system configured for normal clinical use

Applications
Test objects are positioned at the center of the NEMA Cardiology Phantom. This simulates the location of clinically important organs. The NEMA Cardiology Phantom, positioned with its center at the x-ray system’s isocenter, simulates clinical imaging geometry. Therefore, the geometric magnification of the test objects is similar to that of the clinical target. The receptor blur, focal spot penumbra blur and x-ray scatter are also similar in test and clinical conditions. The entrance surface of a thick phantom is closer to the x-ray tube than the entrance surface of a thin phantom. This is an additional reason why patient (phantom) dose increases with phantom thickness.

  • Visualized field: size A plate is placed on the entrance surface of the image receptor. The plate is fluorographed to determine the actual field of view (FOV).
  • Congruence of irradiated and visualized fields: This test is not needed if the shutters are fully seen in the FOV under test. (CAUTION: digitally synthesized shutters may simulate this effect without actual beam collimation.)
  • Spatial resolution: A standard bar pattern insert is included in the central test plate. The test plate is placed with the bars at 45° to the video lines or digital image matrix. This produces the smallest change in the moiré pattern, resulting from a small change in angle.
  • Low contrast delectability: Four sets of holes with diameters of 4, 3, 2, and 1 mm are filled with elemental iodine dispersed in epoxy. The relative areal concentration of iodine in the four patterns is 20, 10, 5, 2.5 mg/cm2. The test operator is required to identify the smallest visible pair of targets in each pattern.


Working Thickness Range: Three examples of white clipping and two examples of black clipping

  • Visibility of moving structures: A rotating spoke target allows visual evaluation of motion unsharpness and the effects of temporal averaging. The device contains five steel wires of different diameters (0.022, 0.016, 0.012, 0.009 and 0.005 inches or 0.56, 0.41, 0.30, 0.23, 0.13 mm). Two lead dots are used to evaluate lag and recursive filtering. Rotation speed is 30 revolutions/min. The linear velocity of the outer lead dot is 200 mm/sec. The rotating disk replaces the central test plate at the isocenter.


  • Motion Target

  • Working thickness range: The ability to image structures overlaid by bone or air. Systems with inadequate single-image latitude are unable to do this in bright (air) or dark (bone) portions of the image. The NEMA Cardiology Phantom contains eight cylinders composed of different heights of air, aluminum and plastic. These cylinders are calibrated for a total 20 cm phantom thickness. A 50 mm deep air challenge target overlaps the four air cylinders. The bright side dynamic range is determined by how many of these targets are seen. A 5 mm lead challenge target overlaps the four aluminum cylinders. The dark side dynamic range is determined by counting these targets.






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